Diana MOVCHAN, PhD, Associate Professor
Sumy State University, Sumy
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3604-7057
The article analyzes the antonymous units, taking into account their peculiar syntagmatic features. It has been found that antonymous relations within the paradigm exist as prospective, based on semantics of opposed units. The actualization of antonymous relations is manifested through their opposition in speech. The analysis of their grammatical, lexical and syntactic compatibility made possible the identification the facts of word antonymy at the syntagmatic level, which proved the commonality of the above-mentioned characteristics in both elements of the antonymous pair. The variability of syntagmatic features in opposed antonymous units can be caused by various reasons, such as the connections and relationships established between objects and phenomena of reality, the possibility of using connected words in direct or figurative meaning, the ambiguity of antonyms, etc. The author focuses on the fact that words can be considered antonyms provided the regular combined reproduction in constant formulas of typical antonymous contexts, which realize one of the following meanings: direct opposition, alternativeness, integrity, contrast, uncertainty, contradiction. It is pointed out that a type variety of antonymous contexts is due to the presence of pragmatic differences in the functioning of antonyms in speech, as speech activity involves the use of antonymous means to verbalize concepts and thoughts depending on the communicative situation. The factors considered above together serve as an auxiliary means of statement the facts of lexical units antonymy as representatives of paradigmatic groups, which inherent characteristic is the presence in the semantics two words of a common seme opposites and an extreme negation component. In general, the definition of paradigmatic and syntagmatic criteria for the antonymy of words makes it possible to understand the linguistic nature of antonymy and serves as proof of its systemic nature.
Keywords: antonymy, paradigmatics, syntagmatics, compatibility, distribution, antonymous context.