See detailed requirements and bibliography reference examples in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 7th Edition and in Examples of bibliographic references  in APA (7th ed.) in the list of references.

For correct compiling of bibliographic references in the list of references, specialised programs can be used, e.g.: https://www.grafiati.com/uk/.


Author, A. A. (the year of publication). Book title. Publisher.

Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.

For electronic books or books that have electronic versions, include the URL at the end of the bibliographic description, for example:

Svendsen, S., & Løber, L. (2020). The big picture/Academic writing: The one-hour guide (3rd digital ed.). Hans Reitzel Forlag.

Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2.

Journal articles

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Article title. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages. URL

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Conference presentations

Author, A. A. (year, month, date of conference). Presentation title [Conference presentation]. Conference name, conference venue. URL

Evans, A. C., Jr., Garbarino, J., Bocanegra, E., Kinscherff, R. T., & Márquez-Greene, N. (2019, August 8–11). Gun violence: An event on the power of community [Conference presentation]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States. https://convention.apa.org/2019-video

Conference materials published in conference proceedings 

Author, A. A. (year). Paper title. Last names of editors of conference proceedings (Eds.), Conference name: Date. Title (pages). Publisher. URL

Bedenel, A.-L., Jourdan, L., & Biernacki, C. (2019). Probability estimation by an adapted genetic algorithm in web insurance. In R. Battiti, M. Brunato, I. Kotsireas, & P. Pardalos (Eds.), Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 11353. Learning and intelligent optimization (pp. 225–240). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05348-2_21



Author, A. A. (year). Dissertation title [Dissertation type, University]. Database. URL

Moss, C. L. (2015). Expanded internet art and the informational milieu (Publication No. 3740855) [Doctoral dissertation, New York University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/1753118023.html?FMT=AI


Author, A. A. (year). Dissertation title [Unpublished dissertation type]. Name of the university that awarded the degree.

Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.

Dissertation abstracts

Zainchkivska, I. P. (2020). Ethno-religious dimensions of the creative heritage of    I. Ohienko [thesis abstract Ph.D. (Philosophy), M. P. Drahomanov National Pedagogical University]. ENPUIR. http://enpuir.npu.edu.ua /handle/123456789/28228

Normative legal acts, standards

International Organization for Standardization. (2018). Occupational health and safety management systems – Requirements with guidance for use (ISO Standard № 45001:2018). https://www.iso.org/standard/63787.html