Semantics of privativity as a reflection of modern Ukrainian socio-political realia

Sazonova Ya. Yu., Doctor of Philology, Associate Professor
H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University, Kharkiv
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-9249-448X


The article aims to analyse the mechanisms of semantic shifts in nominative phrases with the attribute a privative adjective, or in their synonymous constructions, which name the realia of the modern political map of Ukraine. A method of proving the communicative influence of these nominations on delegitimizing the opponent is proposed. The object of the study is the names of the temporarily occupied territories of Luhansk and Donetsk regions of Ukraine and their representatives, elements of state formation, etc.

Linguistic pragmatics with elements of logical semantics and discourse analysis became the theoretical and methodological basis of this work. In particular, the analysis bases on the theory of «double content» and the analysis of the Qualia structures of selected nominations, as well as the linguistic analysis of the discursive strategy of delegitimization of the opponent.

We conclude that the use of privative adjectives and their equivalents restructures the semantic basis of the head-noun at the level of intentional meaning, namely, it does not deny the existence of these realia, but their ability to stand in line with other denotations of the nomination республіка, because the functional component undergoes constant semantic changes; the formal component is situationally restructured; the constitutive component does not change.

The basic AdjprivN фейкова республіка and synonymous nominations, as well as derivative nominations of related realia, are communicatively aimed at delegitimizing the opponent and are widely used in official communication and in the media. Under the conditions of political uncertainty of the status of these formations and hybrid war, which poses a significant threat to the statehood of Ukraine, the use of AdjprivN prevents speakers from unconscious shifts of axiological accents and / or allows to recognize manipulations.

Key words: privativity, adjective, delegitimization, Qualia-structure, theory of «double content».