Nevynna I. P., PhD, Lecturer Institute of Philology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv


Tapas as a part of menu refer to the nonequivalent lexics, which only complicates the translation of such elements, because they belong to exoticisms, words with the cultural shade. In linguistics,   the realia of the subject were investigated by: R.Zorivchak, S. Vlakhov S. Florin, V. Vinogradov and others. In Spain this is one of the most popular topics for research. But some linguists and translators generally do not distinguish the term “realia”, for example, A. Popovich, doesn’t mention “realia” in the dictionary of translation analysis” at all.

In order to achieve an adequate translation of the names of national cuisine, transcription and transliteration, calques, descriptive, generalized, and transformational methods of translation are used.

During the study of the translation of the names of the national cuisine of Spain, it was found that it would be more appropriate to translate them in a mixed way, combining transcription, transliteration or translation, and descriptive translation (giving it in the footnote). But the most frequent are transcription, calques together with renomination (a combination of the above-mentioned transcripts with descriptive translation) (tapas-tapas, (transcription); tortilla – тортілья (transliteration); pinchos – пінчос (transcription + it is desirable to give an explanation-footnote at the bottom of the page that is a tapas , but on a spree (typical of northern Spain); pan catalán – каталонський хліб (calque), gazpacho, salmorejo – газпачо, сальморехо (transcription), paella – паелья (transliteration). In the case where there is no equivavalent in the language of the translation: fabada – фаба-

да, jamón – хамон, churros – чуррос (traditional Spanish donuts, which Spaniards usually eat on Sundays), boquerones – Spanish version of the Ukrainian capalin fish, we will often encounter calques, transliteration with renomination or simply descriptive translation: chocos – кальмари, which are cut in stripes, not rings (no to confuse with the calamares fritas), and so on.

Key words: translation, non-equivalent vocabulary, realia, transcription, calque, descriptive translation, renomination


1.            Barhudarov, L.C. (1975). Yazik i perevod: voprosi obschey y chastnoy teorii perevodov. Moskva.

2. Fedorov A.V., (1983) Osnovi obschei teorii perevoda. Moskva.

3. Kiyak T.R., (2008) Perekladoznavstvo (nimecko-ukrainskiy napriamok). Kyiv.

4. Ruano Faxas F. A. Las realias y su importancia en la traducción, en la interpretación, en los doblajes, en los subtitulajes, en la creación hablada      y escrita de discursos, en la lectura y en Internet: importancia-en-la-19j6x763f3uf8-181/.

5. Zorivchak R.P., (1989). Realia y pereklad ( na materiali anglomovnih perekladiv ukrainskie prosi). Lviv.

6. Osobennosti perevoda meniu restoranov, kafe, barov :

7. Undrintsova M.V. Manu kak tekstovaya raznovidnost gastronomicheskogo discursa I osobennosti ih regionalno-perevodcheskoy adaptacii: